Tourism, Safety, and Security: From Vacation to Staycation

By Sam Vaknin
Author of “Malignant Self-love: Narcissism Revisited

Isolated terrorist attacks have no long-term effects on destination tourism. Only a prolonged period of civil unrest and warfare can decimate a country’s inbound tourism. Facing a variety of threats has always been an integral part of the “job description” of a tourist. Today, as they embark on their annual “vacance”, tourists are mentally prepared to cope with international terrorism; domestic terrorism and insurgencies; blended terrorism (domestic malcontents inspired by international ones); crime (pickpockets, panhandlers, muggers, kidnappers, the homeless, unsolicited prostitution, etc.); the risks attendant on inadvertently violating social and cultural mores, norms, customs, and laws in the host country; endemic diseases and health hazards (food poisoning and food allergies, or encounters with indigenous predatory or venomous fauna and flora for example); natural disasters; and economic disruptions. Nowadays, tourists are far more versed at adopting precautions and implementing preventive measures.

We tend to forget, though, that tourists not only fall victims to mishaps and delinquency – they are also vectors of threats. Tourists are often zero patients in the spread of contagion and pandemics. Terrorists, narco-dealers, and intelligence officers frequently pose as tourists to gain safe passage to their targets. Some tourists constitute a threat to other tourists owing to their nationality (Israeli, American) or their misconduct and inappropriate behavior.

After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, there has been an imperceptible move away from vacation to staycation (spending one’s days off at home) and, more broadly, to domestic tourism. Abroad, tourists are tempting soft targets for criminals and terrorists, both homegrown and international. Often greeted by xenophobia and rabid stereotypes, tourists cannot rely on suspicious local law enforcement or on the hostile populace to come to their aid or to not abet their persecutors.

The “starburst” model of asymmetrical warfare seeks to strike against multiple nationalities in a single operation carried out with minimal assets and means. It is part and parcel of the concept of “total war” which makes no distinction between combatants and civilians. A tourist resort is, therefore, an ideal target. It is also impossible to enhance the resilience of such soft targets by fortifying them because this would counteract and conflict with the openness and freedom which are an essential part of the experience of tourism. Truly defending against terrorist attacks would require the conversion of hotels into prisons and the transformation of the tourist’s numbered holidays into an anxiety-ridden, worry-filled nightmarish sojourn.

Security planners would do well to emulate the lessons learned in information technology defenses: establish a comprehensive, hard to penetrate perimeter (firewall); multi-layered, distributed as well as concentric intrusion detection systems; intelligence-driven protection (akin to signature-based antivirus products); biometric and face recognition defenses; systems founded on heuristic, behavioral, and tell-tale signs; coping with insider threat (hotel personnel or tour guides recruited by terrorist organizations or crime rings, for instance); compartmentalization and backup zones (similar to the architecture typical of ocean liners); and dynamic, proactive protection and surveillance of paths, routes, marketplaces, downtown city centres, hubs, transportation, events, etc.)

It is clear that passive deterrence (e.g. CCTV) is not enough. It should go hand in hand with preventive and preemptive measures, education, preparedness, and active deterrence (via, for example, a pronounced, advertised, and visible police presence). A customer-friendly and specially-trained Tourism Police, integrated with various suppliers and providers in the tourism industry could go a long way towards ameliorating and countering persistent threats to tourism. Simple maintenance has been proven to reduce crime dramatically: street lighting, hedge pruning, sanitary measures, homeless shelters, needle exchanges, and so on. Organized tours should always incorporate one or more security guards.

Tourist education is critical: cultural sensitivity training; introduction to the legal system in the destination and to specific, relevant laws; the role, functions, and limitations of the diplomatic missions in situ, safety and security measures and behaviors; and lists of useful and emergency contacts (including medical personnel and lawyers).

Tourist attractions, accommodation, and services should be ranked for security and safety, possibly via crowdsourcing (similar to the comparative information provided by

Tourism, Security and Safety – From Theory to Practice (, A volume in The Management of Hospitality and Tourism Enterprises, 2006 – Edited by:Yoel Mansfeld and Abraham Pizam – ISBN: 978-0-7506-7898-8 – doi:10.1016/B978-0-7506-7898-8.50001-1 ( – Copyright © 2006 Elsevier Inc. ( All rights reserved.

Risk and safety management in the leisure, events, tourism and sports industries – Erdogan Koc – doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2015.12.006 ( – Tourism Management (, Volume 54, June 2016, Pages 296–297 – Published by Elsevier (

Tourism Security – Strategies for Effectively Managing Travel Risk and Safety ( – Peter E. Tarlow – ISBN: 978-0-12-411570-5 – doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-411570-5.09991-8 ( – Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. ( All rights reserved.

Author Bio

Sam Vaknin ( ) is the author of Malignant Self-love: Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain – How the West Lost the East, as well as many other books and ebooks about topics in psychology, relationships, philosophy, economics, international affairs, and award-winning short fiction.
He is the Editor-in-Chief of Global Politician and served as a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, eBookWeb , and Bellaonline, and as a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent. He was the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory and Suite101.
Visit Sam’s Web site at


Will Trump Quit the Race?

By Sam Vaknin
Author of “Malignant Self-love: Narcissism Revisited

Even his most ardent foes agree that Trump is not stupid and that he is a relentless fighter. Based on what flimsy evidence? His own repeated and vociferous reassurances, of course. Yet, when we apply the cold instruments of psychology to both boasts, they appear to be decidedly shaky.

I will dispense with his claim that he is intelligent by referring the reader to the incredible transcripts of his recent interviews with the New York Times and the Washington Post. As he emerges from these painful exchanges, he makes Sarah Palin look like a towering intellect by comparison. Scoring well in all manner of IQ tests requires an endowed vocabulary, an awareness and knowledge of current affairs (which indicates curiosity, a pillar and hallmark of intelligence), and analytic skills. Trump demonstrates not a hint of these three.

His second attempt at self-portrayal as a dauntless warrior merits much deeper study.

Start with the facts: Trump is a quintessential quitter. He had quitted marriages, business deals, enterprises, and campaigns. When things get rough, he reflexively abandons ship. He is labile, desultorily hopping from one harebrained scheme to another, one romantic union to its successor, one burst of self-promotion to a spectacular, implosive feat of self-destruction. Indeed, this is his brand: a feckless, reckless, daring, unpredictable, vicissitudinal Trump with a capital T.

Trump is taking a lot of flak, heat, criticism, and mockery from his reference group: the people whose opinions he values, whose club he wants to join, to whom he wishes fervently to belong, and by whom he dreams to be finally and unconditionally accepted and respected. I am not talking about his mindless supporters and fans whose dreary lives he probably abhors and whose unthinking loyalty inspires in him only profound contempt. No, he aspires to be counted among the very people that he constantly denigrates, belittles, and humiliates: eggheads, pundits, accredited public intellectuals, analysts, the elites, his father. Indeed, their rejection of him is the trigger for his unbridled wrath. Hell hath no fury like a narcissist scorned.

Trump feels entitled to be admired, adulated, specially and exceptionally treated, and revered (he compulsively seeks “narcissistic supply”). Instead, he is mocked and insulted (he garners “negative supply”). These massive and recurrent narcissistic injuries may well be enough to put him off and, thus, derail his quest for the nomination. Faced with deficient narcissistic supply in their chosen Pathological Narcissistic Space (their stomping grounds, their “kingdom”), narcissists disengage and move on as swiftly and as decisively as circumstances permit. Trump is no exception. But he is so invested in his grandiosely fantastic self-image, that he is likely to go through decompensation and acting out.

What are these?

In extremis, when all the narcissist’s default behaviors, charm, stratagems, and solutions fail, or when only negative, fake, low-grade, and static narcissistic supply is to be had, the narcissist “falls apart” in a process of disintegration known as decompensation (the inability to maintain psychological defenses in the face of mounting stress.) This is accompanied by “acting out”: when an inner conflict (most often, frustration) translates into aggression. It involves acting with little or no insight or reflection and in order to attract attention and disrupt other people’s cosy lives.

The dynamic forces which render the narcissist paralysed and fake – his vulnerabilities, weaknesses, and fears – are starkly exposed as his defences crumble and become dysfunctional. The narcissist’s extreme dependence on his social milieu for the regulation of his sense of self-worth is painfully and pitifully evident as he is reduced to begging, threatening, and cajoling.

At such times, the narcissist acts out self-destructively and anti-socially. His mask of superior equanimity is pierced by displays of impotent rage, self-loathing, self-pity, passive-aggressiveness, and crass attempts at manipulation of his friends, family, and colleagues – or the public comprised of his disaffected and outraged acolytes. His ostensible benevolence and caring evaporate. He feels caged and threatened and he reacts as any animal would do: by striking back at his perceived tormentors as well as at his hitherto “nearest” and “dearest”.

But, if Trump is, as I suggested, a malignant narcissist, how could he possibly justify withdrawing from the race at this late stage, having promised so much to so many? Isn’t he emotionally invested in winning?

Narcissists rationalize their actions. Rationalization is a psychological defense mechanism. It is intended to cast one’s behavior after the fact in a favorable light. To justify and explain one’s conduct or, more often, misconduct by resorting to “rational, logical, socially-acceptable” explications and excuses. Rationalization is also used to re-establish ego-syntony (inner peace and self-acceptance).

Cognitive dissonance – the state of having simultaneous and equipotent but inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes – usually provokes rationalization. It involves speech acts which amount to the devaluation of things and people very much desired or perceived positively but frustratingly out of one’s reach and control or socially deemed unacceptable. In a famous fable, a fox, unable to snag the luscious grapes he covets, says: “these grapes are probably sour anyhow!” This is an example of cognitive dissonance in action.

Trump is likely to use three lines of defensive reasoning:

(1(1) They don’t deserve me. I am much ahead of my time, perspicacious, and sage. People are just not ready for me. History will vindicate me; and/or

(2(2) I am quitting the race in order to protect my family and heal the wounds of the nation; and/or

(3(3) I have proved what I wanted to prove (whatever that may be). No need for me to continue to waste my time and resources. I have better things to do.

WWe can all only wish.


Author Bio

Sam Vaknin ( ) is the author of Malignant Self-love: Narcissism Revisited and After the Rain – How the West Lost the East, as well as many other books and ebooks about topics in psychology, relationships, philosophy, economics, international affairs, and award-winning short fiction.
He is the Editor-in-Chief of Global Politician and served as a columnist for Central Europe Review, PopMatters, eBookWeb , and Bellaonline, and as a United Press International (UPI) Senior Business Correspondent. He was the editor of mental health and Central East Europe categories in The Open Directory and Suite101.
Visit Sam’s Web site at